Lange, Jens ORCID: 0000-0002-5375-3247, Weidman, Aaron C. and Crusius, Jan ORCID: 0000-0002-9403-6084 (2018). The Painful Duality of Envy: Evidence for an Integrative Theory and a Meta-Analysis on the Relation of Envy and Schadenfreude. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol., 114 (4). S. 572 - 599. WASHINGTON: AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC. ISSN 1939-1315

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Abstract

Despite envy's importance as a driver of social behavior, scholars disagree on its conceptualization. We review the literature and distinguish three incongruent theories: (a) Malicious Envy Theory (i.e., envy as uniform and malicious), (b) Dual Envy Theory (i.e., envy as taking on 2 forms, benign and malicious), and (c) Pain Theory of Envy (i.e., envy as uniform and driven by pain). Moreover, within and across theories, operationalizations of envy have included various different components. We integrate these conceptualizations using a data-driven approach, deriving a comprehensive theory of envy in 5 studies (total N = 1,237)-the Pain-driven Dual Envy (PaDE) Theory. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of an exhaustive set of envy components (Studies 1-4) suggest that envy consists of 3 factors: Pain (i.e., preoccupation with the envy-eliciting situation, inferiority), predicts both benign envy (i.e., desire for the envy object, improvement motivation, emulation of the other), and malicious envy (i.e., communication about the other, directed aggression, nondirected aggression). An experience-sampling study (Study 5) suggests that pain constitutes a quickly fading reaction, whereas benign and malicious envy are enduring attitudinal constructs. We apply this theory in a meta-analysis on the controversial relation of envy and schadenfreude (N = 4,366), finding that envy and schadenfreude are more strongly and positively correlated to the extent that the respective research operationalizes envy as malicious, compared with as pain or benign envy. We discuss how the PaDE Theory can illuminate research on envy in diverse settings, and envy's relation to other distinct emotions.

Item Type: Journal Article
Creators:
CreatorsEmailORCIDORCID Put Code
Lange, JensUNSPECIFIEDorcid.org/0000-0002-5375-3247UNSPECIFIED
Weidman, Aaron C.UNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Crusius, JanUNSPECIFIEDorcid.org/0000-0002-9403-6084UNSPECIFIED
URN: urn:nbn:de:hbz:38-190061
DOI: 10.1037/pspi0000118
Journal or Publication Title: J. Pers. Soc. Psychol.
Volume: 114
Number: 4
Page Range: S. 572 - 599
Date: 2018
Publisher: AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC
Place of Publication: WASHINGTON
ISSN: 1939-1315
Language: English
Faculty: Unspecified
Divisions: Unspecified
Subjects: no entry
Uncontrolled Keywords:
KeywordsLanguage
COUNTERPRODUCTIVE WORK BEHAVIORS; EMOTIONAL RESPONSES; SELF-EVALUATION; STEREOTYPE CONTENT; DISCRETE EMOTIONS; FACEBOOK USE; CONSEQUENCES; ADMIRATION; JEALOUSY; BENIGNMultiple languages
Psychology, SocialMultiple languages
Refereed: Yes
URI: http://kups.ub.uni-koeln.de/id/eprint/19006

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