Koch, Alex ORCID: 0000-0002-6267-8066, Alves, Hans, Krueger, Tobias and Unkelbach, Christian (2016). A General Valence Asymmetry in Similarity: Good Is More Alike Than Bad. J. Exp. Psychol.-Learn. Mem. Cogn., 42 (8). S. 1171 - 1193. WASHINGTON: AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC. ISSN 1939-1285

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Abstract

The density hypothesis (Unkelbach, Fiedler, Bayer, Stegmuller, & Danner, 2008) claims a general higher similarity of positive information to other positive information compared with the similarity of negative information to other negative information. This similarity asymmetry might explain valence asymmetries on all levels of cognitive processing. The available empirical evidence for this general valence asymmetry in similarity suffers from a lack of direct tests, low representativeness, and possible confounding variables (e.g., differential valence intensity, frequency, familiarity, or concreteness of positive and negative stimuli). To address these problems, Study 1 first validated the spatial arrangement method (SpAM) as a similarity measure. Using SpAM, Studies 2-6 found the proposed valence asymmetry in large, representative samples of self-and other-generated words (Studies 2a/2b), for words of consensual and idiosyncratic valence (Study 3), for words from 1 and many independent information sources (Study 4), for real-life experiences (Study 5), and for large data sets of verbal (i.e., similar to 14,000 words reported by Warriner, Kuperman, & Brysbaert, 2013) and visual information (i.e., similar to 1,000 pictures reported in the IAPS; Lang, Bradley, & Cuthbert, 2005; Study 6). Together, these data support a general valence asymmetry in similarity, namely that good is more alike than bad.

Item Type: Journal Article
Creators:
CreatorsEmailORCIDORCID Put Code
Koch, AlexUNSPECIFIEDorcid.org/0000-0002-6267-8066UNSPECIFIED
Alves, HansUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Krueger, TobiasUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Unkelbach, ChristianUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
URN: urn:nbn:de:hbz:38-267849
DOI: 10.1037/xlm0000243
Journal or Publication Title: J. Exp. Psychol.-Learn. Mem. Cogn.
Volume: 42
Number: 8
Page Range: S. 1171 - 1193
Date: 2016
Publisher: AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC
Place of Publication: WASHINGTON
ISSN: 1939-1285
Language: English
Faculty: Unspecified
Divisions: Unspecified
Subjects: no entry
Uncontrolled Keywords:
KeywordsLanguage
PHASIC AFFECTIVE MODULATION; INTERPERSONAL BENEFITS; REPRESENTATIVE DESIGN; POSITIVE INFORMATION; PARTICIPANTS RESPOND; IMPRESSION-FORMATION; ECOLOGICAL APPROACH; RECOGNITION MEMORY; SOCIAL INFORMATION; STATISTICAL POWERMultiple languages
Psychology; Psychology, ExperimentalMultiple languages
Refereed: Yes
URI: http://kups.ub.uni-koeln.de/id/eprint/26784

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