Balafoutas, Loukas ORCID: 0000-0002-3477-5096, Nikiforakis, Nikos and Rockenbach, Bettina ORCID: 0000-0003-2624-1964 (2014). Direct and indirect punishment among strangers in the field. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A., 111 (45). S. 15924 - 15928. WASHINGTON: NATL ACAD SCIENCES. ISSN 0027-8424

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Abstract

Many interactions in modern human societies are among strangers. Explaining cooperation in such interactions is challenging. The two most prominent explanations critically depend on individuals' willingness to punish defectors: In models of direct punishment, individuals punish antisocial behavior at a personal cost, whereas in models of indirect reciprocity, they punish indirectly by withholding rewards. We investigate these competing explanations in a field experiment with real-life interactions among strangers. We find clear evidence of both direct and indirect punishment. Direct punishment is not rewarded by strangers and, in line with models of indirect reciprocity, is crowded out by indirect punishment opportunities. The existence of direct and indirect punishment in daily life indicates the importance of both means for understanding the evolution of cooperation.

Item Type: Journal Article
Creators:
CreatorsEmailORCIDORCID Put Code
Balafoutas, LoukasUNSPECIFIEDorcid.org/0000-0002-3477-5096UNSPECIFIED
Nikiforakis, NikosUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Rockenbach, BettinaUNSPECIFIEDorcid.org/0000-0003-2624-1964UNSPECIFIED
URN: urn:nbn:de:hbz:38-423436
DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1413170111
Journal or Publication Title: Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A.
Volume: 111
Number: 45
Page Range: S. 15924 - 15928
Date: 2014
Publisher: NATL ACAD SCIENCES
Place of Publication: WASHINGTON
ISSN: 0027-8424
Language: English
Faculty: Unspecified
Divisions: Unspecified
Subjects: no entry
Uncontrolled Keywords:
KeywordsLanguage
ALTRUISTIC PUNISHMENT; INDIRECT RECIPROCITY; COSTLY PUNISHMENT; COOPERATION; EVOLUTION; ENFORCEMENT; BENEFITS; HUMANS; NORMSMultiple languages
Multidisciplinary SciencesMultiple languages
URI: http://kups.ub.uni-koeln.de/id/eprint/42343

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