Universität zu Köln

The Weak Link: European Union-United Nations Cooperation and Effective Multilateralism in the Mediterranean and the Middle East

Marchesi, Daniele (2012) The Weak Link: European Union-United Nations Cooperation and Effective Multilateralism in the Mediterranean and the Middle East. PhD thesis, Universität zu Köln.

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    Abstract

    The objective of this PhD thesis is to explain why and under what conditions the EU cooperates with the UN in the field of security and development. It focuses specifically on the Middle East and North Africa region (MENA). To do so, the thesis presents and analyses a broad empirical research carried out on 6 case studies across the Maghreb, Levant and Middle East, via extensive direct observation, expert interviews and the use of primary sources, in addition to the study of secondary literature. The research adopts an original rationalist meta-theoretical approach using insights coming from rational-choice institutionalism, liberalism, organizational theory, neo-functionalism and bureaucratic politics to identify the key explanatory factors: capacity and legitimacy, unity and integration. It then carries out a comparative qualitative analysis based on 12 variables and a typology of approaches to cooperation (dependent, ceremonial, predatory, dismissive), applicable both to the EU as a whole and its component actors. The findings show that the EU’s individual decisions to cooperate with the United Nations tend to be inversely linked to its relative power and cohesiveness over a specific issue. The picture is one of instrumental multilateralism, motivated mostly by resource dependence on the UN or by Europe’s frequent lack of cohesion, particularly in the MENA region. Collectively, the EU adopts multilateral strategies of cooperating with the UN when it is forced by the context, when it is divided, fragmented or generally weak. This is confirmed also by contrasting development and security policy. It would seem that the tendency to cooperate is greater in the high politics security field, which is characterized by inter-governmental policy-making, diverging policy preferences of EU member states and a high need for international legitimacy. EU Cooperation with the UN on development policy is often more elusive. EU member states use the UN both to mask their division on a policy and to reinforce their independent status and role within the international system. The European institutions, instead, tend to use cooperation with the UN to gain ground and voice in areas from where they would be otherwise excluded. The thesis is divided in 8 chapters. The Introduction presents the key questions and research design. Chapter 2 looks at the conceptual framework more in detail and operationalizes the explanatory factors and variables. Chapter 3 provides an analytical overview of the mechanisms and logics of EU-UN cooperation across development and security. Chapter 4-6 analyse the specific case studies in the MENA. Chapter 7 synthesizes and illustrates the key findings against the two main hypotheses on resources and cohesion and other intervening factors. Lastly, the Conclusions discuss the significance and limitations.

    Item Type: Thesis (PhD thesis)
    Translated abstract:
    AbstractLanguage
    The objective of this PhD thesis is to explain why and under what conditions the EU cooperates with the UN in the field of security and development. It focuses specifically on the Middle East and North Africa region (MENA). To do so, the thesis presents and analyses a broad empirical research carried out on 6 case studies across the Maghreb, Levant and Middle East, via extensive direct observation, expert interviews and the use of primary sources, in addition to the study of secondary literature. The research adopts an original rationalist meta-theoretical approach using insights coming from rational-choice institutionalism, liberalism, organizational theory, neo-functionalism and bureaucratic politics to identify the key explanatory factors: capacity and legitimacy, unity and integration. It then carries out a comparative qualitative analysis based on 12 variables and a typology of approaches to cooperation (dependent, ceremonial, predatory, dismissive), applicable both to the EU as a whole and its component actors. The findings show that the EU’s individual decisions to cooperate with the United Nations tend to be inversely linked to its relative power and cohesiveness over a specific issue. The picture is one of instrumental multilateralism, motivated mostly by resource dependence on the UN or by Europe’s frequent lack of cohesion, particularly in the MENA region. Collectively, the EU adopts multilateral strategies of cooperating with the UN when it is forced by the context, when it is divided, fragmented or generally weak. This is confirmed also by contrasting development and security policy. It would seem that the tendency to cooperate is greater in the high politics security field, which is characterized by inter-governmental policy-making, diverging policy preferences of EU member states and a high need for international legitimacy. EU Cooperation with the UN on development policy is often more elusive. EU member states use the UN both to mask their division on a policy and to reinforce their independent status and role within the international system. The European institutions, instead, tend to use cooperation with the UN to gain ground and voice in areas from where they would be otherwise excluded. The thesis is divided in 8 chapters. The Introduction presents the key questions and research design. Chapter 2 looks at the conceptual framework more in detail and operationalizes the explanatory factors and variables. Chapter 3 provides an analytical overview of the mechanisms and logics of EU-UN cooperation across development and security. Chapter 4-6 analyse the specific case studies in the MENA. Chapter 7 synthesizes and illustrates the key findings against the two main hypotheses on resources and cohesion and other intervening factors. Lastly, the Conclusions discuss the significance and limitations.English
    Creators:
    CreatorsEmail
    Marchesi, Daniele
    URN: urn:nbn:de:hbz:38-55602
    Subjects: Social sciences
    Political science
    Uncontrolled Keywords:
    KeywordsLanguage
    United NationsEnglish
    European UnionEnglish
    Middle East and North AfricaEnglish
    International RelationsEnglish
    Common Foreign and Security PolicyEnglish
    Development PolicyEnglish
    International OrganizationEnglish
    PeacekeepingEnglish
    MultilateralismEnglish
    Faculty: Wirtschafts- u. Sozialwissenschaftliche Fakultät
    Divisions: Wirtschafts- u. Sozialwissenschaftliche Fakultät > Forschungsinstitut für Politische Wissenschaft und Europäische Fragen
    Language: English
    Date: 25 August 2012
    Date Type: Publication
    Date of oral exam: 20 November 2012
    Full Text Status: Public
    Date Deposited: 30 Jun 2014 16:42:31
    Referee
    NameAcademic Title
    Wessels, WolfgangProf. Dr.
    Leidhold, WolfgangProf. Dr.
    URI: http://kups.ub.uni-koeln.de/id/eprint/5560

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