Alves, Hans, Unkelbach, Christian, Burghardt, Juliane ORCID: 0000-0003-0690-0731, Koch, Alex S., Krueger, Tobias and Becker, Vaughn D. (2015). A density explanation of valence asymmetries in recognition memory. Mem. Cogn., 43 (6). S. 896 - 910. NEW YORK: SPRINGER. ISSN 1532-5946

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Abstract

The density hypothesis states that positive information is more similar than negative information, resulting in higher density of positive information in mental representations. The present research applies the density hypothesis to recognition memory to explain apparent valence asymmetries in recognition memory, namely, a recognition advantage for negative information. Previous research explained this negativity advantage on the basis of valence-induced affect. We predicted that positive information's higher density impairs recognition performance. Two old-new word recognition experiments tested whether differential density between positive and negative stimuli creates a negativity advantage in recognition memory, over and above valence-induced affect. In Experiment 1, participants better discriminated negative word stimuli (i.e., less false alarms) and showed a response bias towards positive words. Regression analyses showed the asymmetry to be function of density and not of valence. Experiment 2 varied stimulus density orthogonal to valence. Again, discriminability and response bias were a function of density and not of valence. We conclude that the higher density of positive information causes an apparent valence asymmetry in recognition memory.

Item Type: Journal Article
Creators:
CreatorsEmailORCIDORCID Put Code
Alves, HansUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Unkelbach, ChristianUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Burghardt, JulianeUNSPECIFIEDorcid.org/0000-0003-0690-0731UNSPECIFIED
Koch, Alex S.UNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Krueger, TobiasUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Becker, Vaughn D.UNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
URN: urn:nbn:de:hbz:38-397662
DOI: 10.3758/s13421-015-0515-5
Journal or Publication Title: Mem. Cogn.
Volume: 43
Number: 6
Page Range: S. 896 - 910
Date: 2015
Publisher: SPRINGER
Place of Publication: NEW YORK
ISSN: 1532-5946
Language: English
Faculty: Unspecified
Divisions: Unspecified
Subjects: no entry
Uncontrolled Keywords:
KeywordsLanguage
SIGNAL-DETECTION-THEORY; DUAL-PROCESS THEORY; FALSE RECOGNITION; SIMILARITY; MODEL; FREQUENCY; CLASSIFICATION; ACTIVATION; ACCOUNTS; WORDSMultiple languages
Psychology, ExperimentalMultiple languages
URI: http://kups.ub.uni-koeln.de/id/eprint/39766

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