Runge, Evelyn ORCID: 0000-0001-9622-2393 (2021). Relations between Photo-Editors and Para-Photojournalists on Twitter. Project Report.

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The microblogging service Twitter has gained importance as an exchange platform for news photos that, in collaboration with renowned media, trigger immediate reactions from photo editors. Uploaded eyewit-ness material from terrorist attacks such as in Brussels (2016), Nice (2016), and Munich (2016), as well as from natural disasters such as the fires in Australia (2020), were the starting-point for my investigati-on: Twitter conversations show that photo editors from all over the world turn to (amateur) photogra-phers (hence, citizen- or para-photojournalists) to request permission to use the pictures in journalistic publications. Some even send a special “social media release form” in which they declare that they recog-nize the copyright holder, but will not pay for the use of the images – although they want to reserve the full rights to further distribution of the respective images over time, space and medium. One of my goals is to investigate the extent to which copyright and terms of use are shaped by social-me-dia companies and journalistic needs, as well as by the ignorance of ‘produsers’ (which is the term coi-ned by Axel Bruns to denote the hybridization of producer and user). My hypothesis is that the distinction between professionals and amateurs in the photojournalism industry is declining. The normalization of unpaid work carried out by produsers in journalism and the creative industries also affects professional standards and ethics. My CAIS working paper shows the preliminary results of my ongoing project.

Item Type: Preprints, Working Papers or Reports (Project Report)
CreatorsEmailORCIDORCID Put Code
URN: urn:nbn:de:hbz:38-650318
Journal or Publication Title: CAIS Center for Advanced Internet Studies
Number of Pages: 10
Date: January 2021
Language: English
Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Humanities
Divisions: Faculty of Arts and Humanities > Fächergruppe 1: Kunstgeschichte, Musikwissenschaft, Medienkultur und Theater, Linguistik, IDH > Institut für Medienkultur und Theater
Subjects: News media, journalism, publishing
Social sciences
Political science
Technology (Applied sciences)
The arts
Photography and photographs
Related URLs:
Funders: CAIS Center for Advanced Internet Research | Ministerium für Kultur und Wissenschaft des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen
Refereed: Yes


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