Franke, Philipp, Lange, Anne Caroline ORCID: 0000-0001-8027-5933 and Elbern, Hendrik ORCID: 0000-0002-5746-4506 (2022). Particle-filter-based volcanic ash emission inversion applied to a hypothetical sub-Plinian Eyjafijallajokull eruption using the Ensemble for Stochastic Integration of Atmospheric Simulations (ESIAS-chem) version 1.0. Geosci. Model Dev., 15 (3). S. 1037 - 1061. GOTTINGEN: COPERNICUS GESELLSCHAFT MBH. ISSN 1991-9603

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A particle-filter-based inversion system is presented, which enables us to derive time- and altitude-resolved volcanic ash emission fluxes along with its uncertainty. The system assimilates observations of volcanic ash column mass loading as retrieved from geostationary satellites. It aims to estimate the temporally varying emission profile endowed with error margins. In addition, we analyze the dependency of our estimate on wind field characteristics, notably vertical shear, within variable observation intervals. Thus, the proposed system addresses the special challenge of analyzing the vertical profile of volcanic ash clouds given only 2D high temporal-resolution column mass loading data as retrieved by geostationary satellites. The underlying method rests on a linear combination of height-time emission finite elements of arbitrary resolution, each of which is assigned to a model run subject to ensemble-based space-time source inversion. Employing a modular concept, this setup builds the Ensemble for Stochastic Integration of Atmospheric Simulations (ESIAS-chem). It comprises a particle smoother in combination with a discrete-grid ensemble extension of the Nelder-Mead minimization method. The ensemble version of the EURopean Air pollution Dispersion - Inverse Model (EURAD-IM) is integrated into ESIAS-chem but can be replaced by other models. As initial validation of ESIAS-chem, the system is applied to simulated artificial observations of both ash-contaminated and ash-free atmospheric columns using identical-twin experiments. Thus, in this idealized initial performance test the underlying meteorological uncertainty is neglected. The inversion system is applied to two notional sub-Plinian eruptions of the Eyjafjallajokull volcano, Iceland, with strong ash emission changes with time and injection heights. It demonstrates the ability of ESIAS-chem to retrieve the volcanic ash emission fluxes from the assimilation of column mass loading data only. However, the analyzed emission profiles strongly differ in their levels of accuracy depending of the strength of wind shear conditions. While the error is only 10 %-20 % for the estimated emission fluxes under strong wind conditions, it increases up to 60 % under weak wind shear conditions. In case of increasing wind shear, the performance of the analysis may benefit from extending the assimilation window, in which new observations potentially contribute valuable information to the analysis system. For our test cases using an artificial volcanic eruption, we found an assimilation window length of 18 h, i.e., 10 h after the eruption terminated, to be sufficient for analyzing the extent and location of the artificial ash cloud. In the performed test cases, the analysis ensemble predicts the location of high volcanic ash column mass loading in the atmosphere with a very high probability of > 95 %. Additionally, the analysis ensemble is able to provide a vertically resolved probability map of high volcanic ash concentrations to a high accuracy for both high and weak wind shear conditions.

Item Type: Journal Article
CreatorsEmailORCIDORCID Put Code
Lange, Anne
URN: urn:nbn:de:hbz:38-670060
DOI: 10.5194/gmd-15-1037-2022
Journal or Publication Title: Geosci. Model Dev.
Volume: 15
Number: 3
Page Range: S. 1037 - 1061
Date: 2022
Place of Publication: GOTTINGEN
ISSN: 1991-9603
Language: English
Faculty: Unspecified
Divisions: Unspecified
Subjects: no entry
Uncontrolled Keywords:
Geosciences, MultidisciplinaryMultiple languages


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