Behrendt, Inga, Bain, Jennifer and Helsen, Kate (2017). MEI Kodierung der frühesten Notation in linienlosen Neumen. In: Kodikologie und Paläographie im Digitalen Zeitalter 4 – Codicology and Palaeography in the Digital Age 4, 11, pp. 275-291. Norderstedt: Books on Demand. ISBN 978-3-7448-3877-1

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Abstract

Das Optical Neume Recognition Project (ONRP) hat die digitale Kodierung von musikalischen Notationszeichen aus dem Jahr um 1000 zum Ziel – ein ambitioniertes Vorhaben, das die Projektmitglieder veranlasste, verschiedenste methodische Ansätze zu evaluieren. Die Optical Music Recognition-Software soll eine linienlose Notation aus einem der ältesten erhaltenen Quellen mit Notationszeichen, dem Antiphonar Hartker aus der Benediktinerabtei St. Gallen (Schweiz), welches heute in zwei Bänden in der Stiftsbibliothek in St. Gallen aufbewahrt wird, erfassen. Aufgrund der handgeschriebenen, linienlosen Notation stellt dieser Gregorianische Gesang den Forscher vor viele Herausforderungen. Das Werk umfasst über 300 verschiedene Neumenzeichen und ihre Notation, die mit Hilfe der Music Encoding Initiative (MEI) erfasst und beschrieben werden sollen. Der folgende Artikel beschreibt den Prozess der Adaptierung, um die MEI auf die Notation von Neumen ohne Notenlinien anzuwenden. Beschrieben werden Eigenschaften der Neumennotation, um zu verdeutlichen, wo die Herausforderungen dieser Arbeit liegen sowie die Funktionsweise des Classifiers, einer Art digitalen Neumenwörterbuchs.

Item Type: Book Chapter or Proceedings Item
Translated abstract:
AbstractLanguage
The Optical Neume Recognition Project (ONRP) is one branch of Cantus Ultimus, a research team overseen by Ichiro Fujinaga at McGill University in Montreal, Canada in association with the SIMSSA project (Single Interface for Score Searching and Analysis), also under Fujinaga’s direction at McGill. Cantus Ultimus aims to use optical music recognition (OMR) technology to develop tools for searching plainchant manuscripts for musical information in much the same way that optical character recognition (OCR) is used to search text in digital environments. With thousands of digital manuscripts with musical notation available online, ONRP has begun this process using a tenth-century manuscript, called the Hartker Antiphoner, as a prototype. The manuscript comes from the St. Gallen Stiftsbibliothek in Switzerland and has an early chant notation that uses neumes without staff lines. Notated by hand, this Gregorian chant notation poses many research challenges. Gregorian chant shows in its essence the relationship between word and music. As a regular part of the liturgy, plainchant sets biblical texts to music; given the importance of the texts, they are understandably set very carefully and sensitively. For example, even if a melody is used for two different texts, the notation of the melody changes to reflect the different structure and meaning. With this level of sensitivity, how can we capture the variety of over 300 neume signs and their combinations that we find in the Hartker Antiphoner? For this technical issue, we use the Music Encoding Initiative (MEI), which is a markup language that has become the standard for the discipline of music. Each sign in a digital image is described within a consistent hierarchy of attributes. MEI is adaptable to every kind of notation because the attributes can be determined freely. Thus, MEI has been used for notations ranging from tablature, to mensural notation, to Hufnagelnotation (Morent, Tübingen). The following article describes the process of adaptation of MEI for neume notation without staff lines. In order to explain clearly where the challenges are, the characteristics of the neume notation are briefly described, as well as how the classifier (a kind of digital neume dictionary) works.English
Creators:
CreatorsEmailORCID
Behrendt, IngaUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Bain, JenniferUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Helsen, KateUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Editors:
EditorsEmailORCID
Busch, HannahUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Fischer, Franzfranz.fischer@uni-koeln.deUNSPECIFIED
Sahle, Patricksahle@uni-koeln.deUNSPECIFIED
Corporate Creators: Institut für Dokumentologie und Editorik
Corporate Contributors: Institut für Dokumentologie und Editorik
URN: urn:nbn:de:hbz:38-77891
Series Name at the University of Cologne: Schriften des Instituts für Dokumentologie und Editorik
Publisher: Books on Demand
ISBN: 978-3-7448-3877-1
Volume: 11
Subjects: Data processing Computer science
Library and information sciences
Music
Divisions: Faculty of Arts and Humanities > Cologne Center for eHumanities (CCeH)
Language: German
Date: July 2017
Related URLs:
Funders: Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung (BMBF)
Projects: eCodicology
Place of Publication: Norderstedt
Refereed: Yes
Page Range: pp. 275-291
Title of Book: Kodikologie und Paläographie im Digitalen Zeitalter 4 – Codicology and Palaeography in the Digital Age 4
URI: http://kups.ub.uni-koeln.de/id/eprint/7789

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